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“”If you think sex workers "sell their bodies," but coal miners do not, your view of labor is clouded by your moralistic view of sexuality. [...] Those saying "but it's different" are right. But the difference stems from the criminalization and stigmatization of the work. [...] And the point is all workers deserve labor rights, regardless of the work. Your feelings about the work are irrelevant.
|—Eric Sprankle, assistant professor of clinical psychology|
Prostitution is the selling or trading of sexual favors and a prostitute is the person who engages in sexual activity for money (or, sometimes, to barter for other goods or services).
The term sex worker was first coined by activist Carol Leigh at a conference in 1978. More recently it has been used by those who work in the industry to avoid the stigma traditionally associated with terms like prostitute.
Prostitution is often referred to as "the oldest profession" though that's debatable especially on how you define "profession" (an exchange has to be made first, for instance). The phrase has been widely referred to prostitution only relatively recently, as other professions such as tailoring, farming, military, teachers, nurses, and doctors were called the same.
The good side
Studies of sex work participants reporting on satisfaction in their jobs show considerable positive effects for many, including flexible working hours, good earning potential, and general job and customer satisfaction, and conclude that it is no more inherently exploitative than most unskilled labour.
It may be argued that, as in the case with drugs, many of the wider social issues associated with prostitution arise from the lack of regulated supervision of the occupation (which surrenders it, and the people working in it, to criminal control) and not from the essential occupation itself.
Prostitution can be a lucrative profession, and is legal in some countries and localities, while decriminalised in others. For instance, it is legal (but confined to licensed brothels) in some counties in Nevada in the United States, and decriminalised in New Zealand. In Germany it is legal but confined to licensed brothels, and in the Netherlands it is legal in a variety of forms, including similar brothels or working in windows belonging to licensed establishments (Dutch: kamers)—presenting oneself as a suggestively dressed (or indeed nude) billboard, where one waits in plain view of the public until a customer's fancy (or something else) is suitably tickled.
East Asian countries, where prostitution has been a cultural norm, currently range from fully legal prostitution (e.g. Thailand and Taiwan) to illegal with varying degrees of tolerance and "rules for breaking the rules" (e.g. Japan, South Korea, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, etc). Japan and South Korea nominally criminalized prostitution under pressure from the west, making it an underground - but de facto mainstream - industry.
Laws against prostitution in PRC and Hong Kong are legacies of the Maoist era and British colonial rule—two greatly unjust legislative traditions. Where it is decriminalised, it is a far safer profession for those who choose to enter it, because of the addition of police protection, regular testing for HIV and other STIs, and the ability to screen clients or for sex workers to work in groups. Most, if not all, legal regimes decriminalizing or partially legalizing the practice heavily restrict or prohibit independent sex work, since the point behind legalization—as with drugs—is not to open up more to criminal operation of the profession, but to outcompete it with a much safer, regulated alternative.
The bad side
“”I was taught from the tender age of seven that my worth was between my legs. How I knew this was that I was raped repeatedly by a family member at the age of seven. It was only reinforced by my mother, who was a prostitute, that my value was between my legs. As long as I had a vagina, I should never be broke. I believed this. So when I was poached at the age of 15 by yet another family member, I had already been groomed. I lied to myself and stayed in the life until my own daughter was sexually assaulted.
Historically, religion and prostitution have often been intertwined, with church-run brothels being common in many areas up until only a few hundred years ago. Presently, however, it is considered a sin by a number of religions - particularly the three desert dogmas - Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Because of this, the practice has been relegated to an often illegal - and therefore dangerous - underground profession.
Considering the fact that, regardless of the boons of legalized prostitution, much prostitution worldwide is still operated in connection with the local criminal underworld (with all the drugs and violence that inherently brings), and with young men and women being duped or forced into the profession, the current state of prostitution in many places is a human rights atrocity. And just like with the war on drugs, legalization is the only approach that actually champions harm reduction approaches to the benefit of the fellow human beings involved, often worse off without it.
- There are a number of prostitutes who are not in the occupation by choice, either because of forced prostitution, societal pressure, or poverty. Surveys conducted by clinical psychologist Melissa Farley and author Louise I. Gerdes indicate that up to 88% of prostitutes wish to leave the profession, but lack the means to do so. However, other studies have indicated that prostitutes generally enjoy their line of work, and have entered the industry voluntarily.
- Criminalization has led to the rise of pimps and organized crime in the sex work industry. In the early 20th century, madams and other brothel operators became dependent on organized crime connections for legal protection. The mob's influence wasn't all bad; the Mafia had a code of chivalry and set standards that kept the pimps in line. The postwar turn away from prostitution by the mob in the wake of Tom Dewey's prosecutions (Lucky Luciano et al.) opened an extremely nasty "wild west" era in prostitution dominated by pimps which reverberates to this day.
- Already at great risk of STDs, illegality exacerbates this risk greatly, while the risk of rape is also increased.
- Mere decriminalization (in contrast to actual legalization) as implemented in the "Swedish model" - in which selling sex is legal but buying it (and connecting sex worker with customer) is illegal - leads to increased dangers for sex workers.
- Sex workers are often harassed by the police as well as members of the general public, a result of the overwhelming bigotry and stigma directed towards sex workers, combined with the withdrawal of police protection of the sex workers that results from the illegality of the profession.
- There are many instances where sex workers (especially in poor areas with limited or corrupt law enforcement, or areas where prostitution is effectively or de jure illegal) become virtual slaves to their pimps; these women have often been brought into the business against their will or under false pretenses, in violation of informed consent, or are underaged to begin with - abandoned in an unregulated industry left to be operated by criminals, they tend to wind up practically being slaves in the places where prostitution is illegal, arguably as a result of said illegality.
- In countries or jurisdictions where prostitution is illegal, reporting abuse and rape is difficult (if not impossible), as police may arrest prostitutes more readily than the people who assaulted them - one of many situations where illegality causes society to shun the very sex workers who can't protect themselves.
- It has been reported that two thirds of prostitutes suffer from PTSD, according to research conducted by Melissa Farley and others. The trauma appears intrinsic, as this is true even when violence is not a factor. If this is because people go into prostitution untraumatized and get traumatized, or if traumatized people seek out prostitution still appears to vary from case to case. However, it should be noted that the aforementioned study has been criticised; according to Canadian Superior Court Judge Susan Himel, Farley "failed to qualify her opinion regarding the causal relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and prostitution, namely, that it could be caused by events unrelated to prostitution", and stated that her "advocacy [appeared] to have permeated her opinions" (Farley has been described as an "anti-pornography and anti-sex work" activist).
- According to research published by the London School of Economics and Political Science, countries where prostitution is legal have higher human trafficking inflows. However, "the study reported an increase in all human trafficking, which includes forms of labor far beyond sex. It is entirely possible that the higher rates of human trafficking were in industries that had nothing to do with sex — the researchers, by their own admission, had no way to find out if that was the case." Furthermore, "[i]n their introduction, researchers state that the data "does not reflect actual trafficking flows" and that it's "difficult, perhaps impossible, to find hard evidence establishing" a relationship between legal prostitution and human trafficking — disclaimers that suggest the study's findings are essentially meaningless." Eric Neumayer, one of the study's authors, stated that "[d]ue to the clandestine nature of both trafficking and prostitution markets, our analysis had to rely on the best available existing data on reported human trafficking inflows. That legalised prostitution increases human trafficking inflows is likely, but cannot be proven with available evidence."
Anti-prostitution legislation is often criticized for disregarding any proposals actually made by sex workers for how their jobs could be made safer - somehow, moralists argue that the same things that make other professions safe, such as regulation, police oversight, ID systems, well lit dedicated buildings, unions and media coverage won't do the sex workers any good just in the specific unique case of this thing that's really a little dirty and should't be going on anyway, right? This complaint was summed up by the viral PSA spread across YouTube entitled "Nothing About Us Without Us."
Views on prostitution
- As a general rule, social conservatives say they don't like prostitution because they say it's immoral, inherently sinful as a sort of fornication or adultery. If one believes the old adage about it being the oldest profession in the world, it's perhaps an odd position as conservatism is about holding on to such old values. Other conservatives may see it as undesirable but inevitable, and perhaps necessary; it should be kept out of the public eye for the sake of appearances and scandal, but expecting it to end is unreasonable.
- Because prostitution is rarely perceived to be about a woman having control over her body in exchange for money, and more often perceived to be about a woman becoming the property of a pimp, or worse, feminists are often torn on the issue of prostitution. On the one hand, most feminists accept that when a woman is able to be in control of choices, it is her right to use her own body as she wishes, as long as the sex is safe, consensual and fair. This view is especially true of so called "sex positive" feminists. On the other hand, prostitution is generally regarded as never safe, consensual and fair, causing many feminists to see it as exploitative. Extreme feminists have argued that in most societies and relationships, prostitution is the norm, though it might be "sex for a
zirconium carbondiamond ring". In this view, any prostitution reinforces the view of female as property to be bought and sold (meaning this view conveniently ignores male prostitutes).
- Radical feminist objections to sex work also often align with older, religiously-based objections. This has led to a number of misguided efforts to somehow end demand (akin to the logic behind unsuccessful anti-drug campaigns such as "Just say no!"), and a push for criminalisation laws to be passed in countries which have previously not had laws specific to, or have otherwise tolerated, prostitution - this despite the evidence for any success of such strategies remaining in absence.
- Liberals are somewhat divided on it much in the same way that feminist thought is. On the one hand, social liberalism that focuses on freedom of expression and freedom to do what you want would be for the legalization and protection of prostitution. On the other hand they can view it as exploitative, unnecessary and a barrier to social mobility. In many if not most cases, these two views are held together as being two sides of a complex issue; they aren't especially contradictory.
- As with social liberals, libertarians are fine with it. But because of the basic libertarian principle of letting people do what the fuck they like, they don't tend to hold the same reservations as liberals because that might mean too much Government Interference. Whether they'd change their minds on this if their kids got into it is a different story.
- Generally socialists are fine with it, although it cannot be a profession one must take if available as a condition of getting unemployment insurance. This is less about socialist ideology having a belief that sex work is somehow significantly "different" from any other job and more about the simple fact that literally forcing people into prostitution is not very popular for some reason. Both Socialists and Communists encourage sex workers (and all others) to get organized into labor unions of various forms, which leads to this old joke; Horrified at the thought of exploitive "right to work" brothels, a man walks into a unionized brothel. He says "wow, the blond woman in the window is amazing! I'll take her!" "Excellent choice, sir, but I'm afraid the fat old toothless woman in the corner has seniority."
- Communists think that it's bad, because it is an opportunity for the bourgeoisie to exploit human sexuality and profit from it. Pigs! Though communists in general have no high opinion of dependent labor as a system and as such many communists see no difference in principle between prostitution and bone crushing factory work for minimum wage.
- Similarly to libertarianism, anarchists oppose the use of force to prevent prostitution. They disagree about whether it is otherwise acceptable, however. Spanish anarchist feminists in Barcelona during the civil war tried to get prostitutes to leave the profession (their circumstances were not those people either for or against would like) while modern anarchists focus on helping to improve prostitutes' lives, which includes opposing laws against their work.
In any case, the issue of prostitution is often tied up with matters of slavery, illegal immigration, and sometimes child molestation in public dialog, vastly complicating the moral issues involved. Legal or no, however, prostitution continues everywhere and is often known as marriage.
Prostitutes who make individual appointments are called "call girls" or "escorts" — referring to the way that they contact and become involved with their clients. They often work independently, service rich clients and earn a lot of money. This is as opposed to "streetwalkers" who, as their name implies, walk the streets to find clients. They typically make less money from each of their customers, and are much more likely to be involved in the more unsavory activities that are most often associated with prostitution. Male prostitutes/"escorts" may be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, while their sexual proclivities have no bearing on the clientele they service, just as for women in the industry. Male prostitutes who service wealthy women are often known as "gigolos".
Marriage as "legalized prostitution"
Marriage is considered to be legalized prostitution by some feminist scholars, such as Dale Spender and women's rights activist Victoria Woodhull. Despite this claim, many men and women are happily married in loving relationships. Wedleases (temporary marriages) are especially subject to this perception. This is because wedleasing may be viewed primarily as a financial endeavour for sex rather than one involving commitment to a fellow wedleaser.
There are some who view doing anything that you don't want to do, but are willing to do for money, as a form of prostitution. This would make most of the global work force, and almost all politicians, filthy stinking whores.
- 5 Myths About Prostitutes I Believed (Until I Was One) — from Cracked.com, Note that deals article reflects on the experience in a legalized and somewhat regulated setting.
- Inside London’s Prostitute Graveyard — from The Daily Beast.com
- And "window shopping" is how they advertise in Amsterdam.
- Unrepentant Whore: The Collected Writings of Scarlot Harlot by Carol Leigh, 2004. ISBN 0-86719-584-3, p. 69
- The ugly truth about prostitution is that without various forms of force it would collapse'
- Ruth Mazo Karras, Common Women: Prostitution and Sexuality in Medieval England
- Farley, Melissa; Barkan, Howard (1998). "Prostitution, Violence, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder". The Haworth Press, Inc.. http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/Farley%26Barkan%201998.pdf. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
- "Prostitution Is Not A Choice". http://www.soroptimist.org/whitepapers/whitepaperdocs/wpprostitution.pdf. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
- "Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction Survey", National Ugly Mugs, UK Network of Sex Work Projects
- Cecilia Benoit, Chris Atchison, Lauren Casey, Mikael Jansson, Bill McCarthy, Rachel Phillips, Bill Reimer, Dan Reist & Frances M. Shaver, "Gender, Violence and Health – Contexts of vulnerability, resiliencies and care among people in the sex industry", Understanding Sex Work
- Nick Mai, "Migrant Workers in the UK Sex Industry", Institute for the Study of European Transformations London Metroplitan University
- Susann Huschke, Peter Shirlow, Dirk Schubotz, Eilís Ward, Ursula Probst, Caoimhe Ní Dhónaill, "Research into Prostitution in Northern Ireland", Commissioned from Queen's University Belfast by the Department of Justice
- Charrlotte Seib, Michael P. Dunne, Jane Fischer & Jackob M. Najman, "Predicting the Job Satisfaction of Female Sex Workers in Queensland, Australia", International Journal of Sexual Health
- Lisa Maher, Thomas Crewe Dixon, Pisith Phlong, Julie Mooney-Somers, Ellen S. Stein, Kimberly Page, "Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia", Health and Human Rights
- Jay Levy & Pye Jakobsonn, "Sweden’s abolitionist discourse and law: Effects on the dynamics of Swedish sex work and on the lives of Sweden’s sex workers", Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Susan Dewey & Tonia St. Germain, "“It Depends on the Cop:” Street-Based Sex Workers’ Perspectives on Police Patrol Officers", Sexuality Research and Social Policy
- Lynzi Armstrong, "“Who’s the Slut, Who’s the Whore?”: Street Harassment in the Workplace Among Female Sex Workers in New Zealand", Feminist Criminology
- Melissa Farley, Ann Cotton, Jacqueline Lynne, Sybille Zumbeck, Frida Spiwak, Maria E. Reyes, Dinorah Alvarez & Ufuk Sezgin, "Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries", Journal of Trauma Practice
- Superior Court of Justice, 28th September 2010, "Bedford v. Canada, 2010 ONSC 4264", CanLII
- "Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?". World Development. 2013. http://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=111089002009100067014110069121089087034086041036045026092114023030104099098081120031022029052037057008050109103108096103110083122004033060060124092065095125076079047041043118104020085006066009026089101027111091018030013099006030121105070075101031092&EXT=pdf. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Clare McGlynn, John Stuart Mill on Prostitution: Radical Sentiments, Liberal Proscriptions, Nineteenth Century Gender Studies 8.2 (Summer 2012)
- Wendy Shalit, A Return to Modesty, pp 230, ISBN 9780684843162
- David A. J. Richards, Women, Gays, and the Constitution, pp 168, ISBN 9780226712079
- Rampell, Paul. "A High Divorce Rate Means It’s Time to Try ‘Wedleases,’." The Washington Post (2013).
- "Work: a prison of measured time." Phoenix Rising Magazine