| It doesn't stop|
at the water's edge
A political party is an organization dedicated to gaining political power for both the party and its members.
A typical political party will endorse a "platform," which represents their stands on various issues of the day. Depending on the party, and the issue, adherence to every point of these platforms is not necessarily required. Often what is more important in governing situations among larger parties is what is called "party discipline," where members are expected to vote a certain way on certain bills, however close or distant the issue at hand is to the actual platform.
So-called "catchall" parties will usually have very long, intricate, and watered-down platforms that reflect their large base of member voters. Smaller parties, which often form in reaction to a single issue or small group of issues being neglected (in their opinion) on the political stage, will often have short, concise platforms.
- 1 Party systems
- 2 Party systems around the world
- 2.1 Africa
- 2.2 Americas
- 2.3 Asia
- 2.4 Europe
- 2.5 Oceania
- 3 Erm... "elsewhere"
- 4 Note
- 5 References
National party systems differ considerably in the number and relative strength of their parties. This is mostly due to two factors: the severity of social fault lines ("cleavages") in a society, be they ethnic, economic or religious; and the voting system a country employs. Highly pluralistic societies and proportional voting systems tend to increase the number of parties, while uniform societies with majoritarian elections usually have fewer of them. At the most basic level, the party systems are classified as one-, two- or multiparty systems. A one-party-system doesn't necessarily mean that the state in question is authoritarian and doesn't allow competition — maybe one party is just so awesome that nobody else wants to vote for another (the Swedish Social Democrats used to dominate the system in this manner, for example). Two-party systems tend to be most closely associated with majoritarian first-past-the-post election systems, as in the United States, though there are rare cases of de jure two-party systems, such as Shah Pahlavi's Iran. Sometimes, these systems do allow other parties to rise, like the British Liberal Democrats, but the aftermath of the 2010 election was the first occasion on which their existence had an actual impact on government formation. Finally, multiparty systems with many smaller parties tend to occur in countries with many deep social divisions (Belgium) or very low entry hurdles (Israel). Studying and comparing party systems is a major branch of political science, and there is a multitude of studies that explore these relationships in more detail.
Party systems around the world
In many African countries the political scene is dominated either by the former independence movement or movements against a native dictatorship and/or ethnicity based parties. As such the name of a party does not necessarily include its ideology.
- Prior to its first democratic elections in 1994, South African politics was dominated by the conservative National Party, which governed the country on the basis of "Christian nationalism" and "separate development" - the basis for apartheid.
- The Conservative Party of South Africa only came into being in 1982, when a group of ultra-conservatives, led by Dr. Andries Treurnicht (a Dutch Reformed Church minister), broke away from the National Party. They objected to the creation by PW Botha, of the so-called Tricameral Parliament (which gave token representation to Indian and coloured South Africans, whilst ignoring black South Africans) and other reforms, which the Conservative Party felt were a threat to white minority rule. In other words, the Conservative Party of South Africa came into being, because they felt the ruling apartheid regime wasn't being racist enough.
- The main party since the end of Apartheid is the ANC or African National Congress which started out as an anti-Apartheid movement. They have won all national elections in which blacks could vote. Today the ruling African National Congress while being nominally socialist/social democratic is such a large party that individual planks of the platform and several high ranking members are quite conservative, especially on social issues. There are also numerous smaller explicitly Christian parties of any ethnic composition.
- The main opposition party (Democratic Alliance) is a Centrist catch all party that tries to style itself after the Obama-era Democrats.
- ZANU-PF: Party of Robert Mugabe "wins" all elections.
Brazilian politics is characterized by the presence of a large number of small parties even in parliament; this list merely lists the leading forces from each political camp (except for the communists, who are only included for consistency).
- PT - Workers Party (Center-left, social democratic, social liberal, populist. Formerly far-left and anticapitalist. Party of Lula and Dilma Rousseff.)
- PSDB - Social Democrat Party of Brazil (Center-right, social liberal. Started off center-left and opposed military dictatorship, then moved to the right as the only suitable mainstream party for right-wingers.)
- PDT - Democratic Labour Party (Centre-left, social democratic, labourist. Former ally of Lula, it holds more moderate position than PT and is similar to the Labour Party of UK)
- PSB - Socialist Party of Brazil (Centre-left, social democratic. Similar to PDT, just a bit more moderate, similar to german SPD)
- PMDB - Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Center-left to center-right. The party of president Temer, who polls consistently in single digits)
- PSL - Social Liberal Party (Far-right, nationalist, irony. Jair Bolsonaro, a typical radical right politician with the addest twist of supporting military dictatorship, goes here, although he switches parties all the time)
- PTB - Labour Party of Brazil (Centre -right, conservative. Formerly centre-left and labourist).
- PSOL - Socialism and Freedom Party (Left-wing to far-left, comparable to Momentum in the UK, and Democratic Socialists of America)
- PCdoB - Communist Party of Brazil (Left- to far-left, Communism, Marxism-Leninism. PCdoB is the bigger communist party, basically a loyal coalition partner for PT at this point.)
- PCB - Brazilian Communist Party (another one, more ideologically rigid and also more irrelevant)
The parties having seats in Parliament:
- Liberal Party (Center to center-left, seems to have resigned itself to the Conservatives' austerity. Often derided (or applauded) for their strategy of pursuing (or stealing) the most popular ideas in the country at the time to stay in power. To be fair, it worked for 80 of the first 110 years of Canada's existence, so there you go.)
- Conservative Party (Center-right to right-wing) Conservatism in Canada has, like its counterpart in the United States, shifted further to the right in recent years, and rather strangely. The Tories were once known as the Progressive Conservative Party, which was centrist by today's standards and even pragmatic enough to win votes from the most hardline Dipper. The Social Credit Party once occupied the space further to the right; with the collapse of the SoCreds during the 1980s, the Reform Party of Canada (1987-2000) emerged with a social conservative platform and its base of support in the Western provinces, replaced by the Canadian Alliance (2000-2003). The Progressive Conservatives and the Canadian Alliance merged in 2003 to become the Conservative Party of Canada, who - at their very best - are like the worst of the Blue Dog Democrats circa 1996 (with the crime bill and welfare reform admiration). Thanks to Harper, who helped spearhead the merger, attempts at social conservatism (tried to ban abortion), transparent xenophobia regarding Muslims (the "burqa ban" nonsense in 2015), an anti-science agenda, and a hard-on for warmongering (tried to merge the Canadian and American militaries together) were all adopted by the Tories. Harper is the most viciously and fervently right wing Prime Minister in their history, but if you put him in America, he'd be the "moderate" (which is a commentary more on America than on Canada).
- Bloc Québécois (Center-left, Separatist, nationalistic)
- New Democratic Party (Center-left to left-wing)
- Green Party (Center to center-left, environmentalist)
- Independent Democratic Union (Right-wing to far-right, neoliberalism, Pinochetism)
- National Renewal (Center-right to right-wing, classical liberalism)
- Amplitude (Center, classical liberalism)
- Christian Democratic Party (Centrist, mostly socially conservative)
- Socialist Party (Center-left, social democratic, socialist in-name-only)
- Party for Democracy (Center-left)
- Social Democrat Radical Party (Center-left)
- Communist Party (Ehh... Commies)
For the 2017 election the parties were united into alliances:
- Centre-left Nueva Mayoría, led by the Socialists and including the Communists. One major party.
- Right-wing Chile Vamos, led by IDU. Another major party, won the presidency.
- Left-wing Frente Amplio, a collection of formerly small leftist parties. Seems like a viable third party, *almost* beat the centre-left to the runoffs.
- PAN - Nacional Action Party (Center-right. conservatism and Christian democracy)
- PRI - Institutional Revolutionary Party (Center. a hotbed of corruption)
- PRD - Party of the Democratic Revolution (Center-left. social democracy)
- PVEM - Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (Center-right. Green conservatism)
- PT - Labor Party (Left-wing)
- MORENA - National Regeneration Movement (Center-left to left-wing)
The United States has a two party system, with these two parties who have had a virtual stranglehold on US politics since the Civil War:
- Democratic Party (Centre-left and liberal, with a small but rapidly growing progressive movement.[note 1])
- Republican Party (Right-wing and conservative, supposedly a mainstream party but embraces the agenda of Donald Trump's far-right populism.)
In addition, some of these parties have won seats at very local levels, but never at a national level. Some Senators and Representatives, however, do have views that fall in line with some of these.
- Green Party (Left-wing, environmentalist, tends to peddle woo. Openly conspiratorial as of 2016.)
- Libertarian Party (Libertarian, duh)
- Reform Party (Center-right with a side of nuts)
- Modern Whig Party (Center-right)
- Justice Party (Social democratic. center-left)
- Constitution Party (Paleoconservative, far-right)
- National Socialist Movement Party (Batshit insane racists, far-right)
- Communist Party USA (What it says on the tin; far-left)
- Socialist Party (A number of variations are scattered about, and not all agree with each other, center-left to far-left; Socialist Party USA is the biggest)
- Peace and Freedom Party (Self-described as "committed to socialism, democracy, ecology, feminism and racial equality", center-left to left-wing, active mostly in California)
- Working Families Party (Social democratic, progressive, populist. Center-left.)
- Prohibition Party (Founded in 1869, making it the oldest minor party in the USA. Their 2012 Presidential ballot received 518 votes nationwide, and their 2016 Presidential Convention consisted of a conference call.)
- Indian conservatism is represented by Hindu nationalism. The Bharatiya Janata Party is the chief conservative party in India.
“”To read, let alone write, a detailed account of all of Israel's parties - their permutations, alliances, and mutual betrayals - is a punishment fit for the worst sinners in hell.
|— Martin van Creveld|
There is a reason for the old adage "two Jews three opinions". A two percent threshold and a purely proportional system of representation have done the rest.
In general though, the two major parties of left and right for most of Israel's history have been Labor (under varying names and alliances) and Likud (dito). Recently both have taken hits, the former due to its largely dovish stance on the peace process falling out of favor, the latter due to Ariel Sharon splitting off his own party (Kadima, if you were curious).
- Liberal Democratic Party (Hold on to your hats: Right-wing, conservative, they ruled for almost 54 years! Continuously! You know, except those 11 months in 1993 and 1994 The only party in a democratic nation to beat them in terms of longevity of reign is Mexico's PRI that - as chance would have it - returned to power again after a brief absence from it)
- Constitutional Democratic Party (Center-left. Formed by the liberal wing of the Democrats who didn't join the Party of Hope. Mainly consists of social liberals who oppose changing Japan's pacifist constitution)
- Democratic Party for the People (Center-right. Formerly the Party of Hope. Formed by governor of Tokyo Yuriko Koike in the run up to the 2017 election and merged with the conservative wing of the Democratic Party (DP). The remnants of the DP folded into it a year later when it renamed itself. Pretty much indistinguishable policy-wise from the LDP)
- New Komeito Party (Center-right. conservatives and centrists linked to Soka Gakkai Buddhist sect. In perpetual coalition with the LDP)
- Japanese Communist Party (Left-wing. democratic socialists - also pacifists, they kept the name, though)
- Nippon Ishin no Kai (Neoliberal, right-wing. Mainly based in Osaka)
- Social Democratic Party (center-left. exactly what's on the tin. Used to the be the second largest party before going into a coalition with the LDP in the 1990's. Since then it has become pretty much irrelevant.)
- Liberal Party (the current party of the former kingmaker of Japanese politics Ichirō Ozawa)
- Democratic Party (Formed in 2016 by a merger between various opposition parties, the DP was a heterogeneous coalition of centrists, former socialists and former conservative lawmakers that was nominally center to center-left but in practice defined by not being the LDP. Not to be confused with its predecessor the Democratic Party of Japan which was in government 2009-2012. In 2017 it completely imploded with its conservative wing joining the Party of Hope and its liberal wing the CDP.)
- Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland (All these parties are loyal to the regime)
- Workers' Party of Korea (Wins all elections, represents all workers. Oh right, everyone is employed by the government.)
- Korean Social Democratic Party (puppet of the regime, officially centre-left)
- Chondoist Chongu Party (puppet of the regime, linked to chondoist religion)
South Korea's major parties often "dissolve" themselves by merging with smaller parties while largely retaining their former identities and, sometimes, even their former names. The Millennium Democrats, for example, became the Democrats (2006), which "dissolved" into the Democrats.
South Korea is basically a multi-party system, but it has been greatly influenced by the American-style political system.
The tendency of the two largest parties is similar to that of the U.S.
- Democratic Party (Centre to centre-left. Liberals. Current President Moon Jae-In's party)
- Liberty Korea Party (Social conservative and Right-wing to far-right. the party former name in Korean, the Grand National Party, was a play on words, it can mean "Korean National" and also "Great National". Diminished after a corruption regarding former President Park Geun-hye)
- Bareunmirae Party - (Centre-right, liberal conservatives.)
- Party for Democracy and Peace (centrist liberal)
- Justice Party (centre-left, social democrats.)
- Minjung Party (left-wing, socialism and Korean nationalism)
- Our Republican Party (far-right, Pro-Park Geun-hye and anti-communist)
From here on, it is a party without seats.
- Labor Party - (centre-left to left-wing. socialism and minority movement)
- Green Party Korea - (left-wing. feminism and green politics)
- Our Future - (left-wing. new left and socialism)
- Christian Liberal Party - (far-right, christian fundamentalism)
- The Communist Party- Wins all elections, represents all workers. Sure. Arguably more nationalistic than communistic at this point (the irony!), and has been turning China into a market economy since the 80's. Economically the CCP supports "Supply-Side Structural Reform".
Hong Kong is a territory of China, but it is a home rule city that is building its own political and economic system. That's why Hong Kong, unlike mainland China, has a Western-style liberal democracy' (although its liberal democracy is increasingly being undermined...)
Taiwan(Republic of China)
Unlike Hong Kong and Macau, Taiwan is not a region dominated by China. But the international position of Taiwan is recognized as China's territory.
For now, Taiwan is de facto an independent country unlike Hong Kong and Macau, so China is not directly interfering with politics. (Of course, even though China is putting pressure on Taiwanese politics with the 'One-China policy' principle)
- Kuomintang (China nationalism + Conservative party. This party was the famous Chiang Kai-shek party. So it was originally an anti-Communist party, it has been favorable to the PRC since the '90s and has turned its course toward reunification with China. However, they oppose reunification or 'one country, two systems' by the communist regime. They want to unify 1:1 in equal relations.)
- Democratic Progressive Party (Social liberalism + Taiwan nationalist party. They argue that Taiwan is not part of China and that Taiwanese are not Chinese. The People's Party of China was autocratic in Taiwan from the late 40s to the early 80s, a political party led by pro-democracy activists who opposed it.)
- New Power Party (It is a political party created by Taiwan's labor activists and radical student activists and represents leftist populism. It advocates democratic socialism and Taiwanese nationalism, but it abhors communism. The party also dislikes the Chinese so much that there is a controversy over racism.)[note 2]
- People First Party (Although it is a Chinese nationalist conservative party, it is a center-right party that is more friendly to Taiwanese nationalism than Kuomintang.)
- Non-Partisan Solidarity Union (Center and center-right minor party. The party is skeptical of Taiwanese nationalism, but neither is Chinese nationalism so friendly. It aims to preserve the traditional culture of minorities in Taiwan.)
- Christian Democratic and Flemish/Humanist Democratic Centre (Centrist economically, but socially conservative)
- Open Flemish and Liberal Democrats/Reform Movement (Right-wing economically, but socially liberal)
- Socialist Party.Different/Socialist Party (Centre-left, social democratic)
- Green!/Ecolo (Centre-left to left-wing, environmentalist)
- New Flemish Alliance (Right-wing, Flemish Nationalists)
- Democracy, Federalist, Independent (Right-wing, Walloon Nationalists)
- Flemish Belonging (Far-right, Conservative)
- People's Party (Far-right, right-wing populists with close ties to Marine Le Pen and Steve Bannon)
- Party of Labor (Left-wing, Ex-communist)
- National Coalition Party (Center-right. Neo-liberal in economics with a more libertarian youth movement. In social issues they have both very liberal and very conservative factions)
- Social Democratic Party of Finland (Your run of the mill Nordic Social democratic party. Dominated Finnish parliament during much of the post WW2 20th century. Moved more towards Social Liberalism during 1990s (when they formed a coalition government with National Coalition), but has in recent years returned towards more traditional Social Democratic policies. Bounced back on top for the first time in 16 years in 2019 elections.
- Center Party (Historically Centrist and agrarian. Between 2015 and 2019 they took a hard (economic) right wing turn which lead to their worst election result in over 100 years in the 2019 parliamentary elections. They are currently trying to shift back towards the centre.)
- The Finns Party (a Populist, euroskeptic, socially conservative, not racistDo You Believe That? but number one with racists. Originally called True Finns, they changed their English name in 2011 to demonstrate that they’re not just the only true Finns, but indeed the only Finns period. Used to be more centrist with less blatant racism, but since 2003 they’ve moved further and further towards batshit insanity. In 2017 party conference the Anti-immigration hard liners took over and two days later most of the “moderates”, including all of the former party leadership, defected and formed their own party “Blue Alternative”. Nevertheless, the Finns Party jumped back to 2nd place in 2019 elections, having just 1 seat less than Social Democratic Party, whereas Blue Alternative sunk to obscurity.)
- Green League (Environmentalist, social liberal, also either right-wing or Stalinist, depending on who you ask. Party of )
- Left Alliance (Left-wing)
- Christian Democrats of Finland (Socially conservative, economically centrist bible thumpers)
- Swedish People's Party of Finland (Swedish speaking minority[note 3], technically center-right but also so flexible that they fit in almost any coalition government)
- Democratic Movement (MoDem) (Centrist. Reasonable success.)
- En Marche! (Centrist. pro-European neoliberal, Party of current president Emmanuel Macron)
- Europe Ecology – The Greens (Centre-left, environmentalist)
- Union des Démocrates et Indépendants (Centre to center-right, allied with the UMP)
- Socialist Party (PS) (in practice, Center-left and social democratic at the very best. François Hollande, the former PS president, is part of the social liberal centrist wing of the party. Minor party since 2017 from being in power for five years, continuing austerity, and adopting the right's approach to Muslims.
- Les Républicains (LR) (Conservative, from Center-right to positions close to the FN's)
- Front National (FN) (Right-wing to far-right. ultra-conservative, Islamophobic. Made it to the runoffs in 2002 and 2017.)
- Left-wing Front (Left-wing to far-left. includes the Communist Party)
- La France Insoumise(Left-wing to far-left. It advocates democratic socialism and Alter-globalisation. Jean-Luc Mélenchon is the Founder of the Party.)
- New Anticapitalist Party (Far-left)
- Pirate Party (minor - but very popular with poor 20 and 30 somethings who need to download stuff).
- Christian Democratic Union (Centre to centre-right, has chancellery)
- Christian Social Union (center-right, in union with the CDU, only exists in Bavaria)
- Free Democratic Party (FDP) (Centre to centre-right liberal. classical liberalism, moderate neoliberalism)
- Green Party (Centre-left, environmentalist)
- Social Democrats (Centre to centre-left. It is the world's oldest political party for social democracy!)
- The Left (right-wing. Just kidding, it's what the label says.)
Since the two biggest parties have both moved to the center over the last decade, the space there is getting rather crowded, and people find it increasingly hard to figure out the differences. On the plus side, ideological differences have mostly vanished, and policies are rather stable across administrations. On the negative side, ideological differences have mostly vanished, and policies are rather stable across administrations.
- League (far-right, nationalist, anti-immigrants, wingnut, xenophobe, homophobe; currently in government)
- Five Star Movement - M5S (Big tent, populist, anti-establishment. Currently in government with the League, it has moved to the right and is now decreasing in polls; supports woo and conspiracy theories)
- Democratic Party - PD (Formerly a social democratic party, it has moved to the centre and has adopted neoliberal policies, losing much of its support. It is now slowly moving again to the left)
- Forza Italia - FI (officially a liberal-conservative party, it is actually a personal party led by criminal Silvio Berlusconi and frequently changes ideology)
- Brothers of Italy - FdI (basically the same as the League, little popular support)
- Free and Equals - LeU (a coalition between leftist parties and social democratic splits from PD, it has small support and collapsed after 2018 election)
- More Europe (centrist, neoliberal, little but stable support)
Parties with at least one seat in the Dutch House of Representatives:
- People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) (33 seats); historically a centre-right party, recently increasing more right-wing in in most economic and social policies.
- Party for Freedom (PVV) (20 seats); Geert Wilders's populist party which rarely pass up an opportunity to be wrong.
- Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) (19 seats); probably the most centrist party, though moving in the conservative direction as of 2017.
- Democrats '66 (D66) (19 seats); progressive centre to centre-left party.
- GreenLeft (GL) (14 seats); center-left party with focus on environmental issues. Its charismatic leader Jesse Klaver styles himself a Trudeau.
- Socialist Party (SP) (14 seats); socialist with populist tendencies.
- Labour party (PvDA) (9 seats); centre-left, former major party. Moved to the center and adopted the Third Way in the nineties, culminating in coalition with VVD; since 2017 they’ve crashed to single digits.
- ChristianUnion (CU) (5 seats); "social Christians", focused on bringing the compassionate and humanist side of the Bible into practice. Mostly centre-left, but more conservative on some religious issues.
- Party for the Animals (PvdD) (5 seats); left party with focus on environmental issues, animal rights.
- 50Plus (4 seats); mostly centre-right with a focus on the elderly.
- Reformed Political Party (SGP) (3 seats); fundamentalist Christian party.
- DENK (3 seats); identity politics and left-wing party, focused on voters with a Turkish background.
- Forum for Democracy (FvD) (2 seats); roughly the PVV pretending to be intellectual.
Most of these parties are also represented in the Dutch senate; which also has the "independent senate party" (OSF). Since few people care about the senate, no one really knows who they are or what they stand for.
These parties are represented in the Norwegian parliament.
- The Labor Party (Arbeiderpartiet): The social democrats, which has dominated Norwegian politics since 1935.
- The "Progress" Party (Fremskrittspartiet): The right-wing populists, who think Norway would be better off with fewer taxes and immigrants. Some argue the name is misleading. Currently in power.
- The Conservative Party (Høyre): The liberal-conservative party. Likes to pull the brakes. Currently in power.
- The Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti): The socialist opposition party, which used to criticize the Labor Party from the left. Being in its first government (a coalition with the Labors) tore the party down, and it is now struggling to survive.
- The Centre Party (Senterpartiet): A centrist agrarian party with strong isolationist and traditionalist inclinations. Formerly called Bondepartiet ("Farmer's Party"). Strongly opposes membership in the European Union. Popular on the countryside.
- The Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti): The morally conservative party, which is skeptical to homosexuality and other ungodly things.
- The Liberal Party (Venstre): A social liberal party which used to be the biggest party of the left (until the interwar years), but now is more of a center-right shadow of its former self, notable as one of two parties opposing increased surveillance and supporting people's right to download music without being sued.
- The Green Party (Miljøpartiet de Grønne): Argualy the largest radical party represented in the Parliament. Used to be in the fringe of Norwegian politics, but is now a growing political force. Notable as the only party which declares no affiliation to the historic right/left-wing blocks of politics. Popular in the largest cities.
- Reds- Far-left, reform communist party that is popular with young, urban voters. Its leader, Bjørnar Møxnes, was elected as Rødt’s sole MP in 2017.
- Civic Platform (Center-right, in power until 2015. The largest parliamentary opposition since)
- Law and Justice (Right-wing to far-right, Christian democratic with heavily conservative social stance, control the presidency of Poland and the party is in power)
- Polish People's Party (agrarian, conservative, often regarded as populist due to a tendency of switching alliances, currently in coalition government with Civic Platform)
- Alliance of Democratic Left (center-left, successor to the United Workers Party of Poland - the former ruling party during communism era - and mostly consists of their former members. As with several other European social-democratic parties, once was in government but declined to almost nothing)
- Your Movement, formerly Palikot's Movement (social-liberal, heavy focus on social issues like LGBT rights, relaxing drug laws and separating the state from the church; former member Anna Grodzka was Poland's first transgender MP)
- Coalition for Restoration of Rzeczpospolita Freedom and Hope (as ridiculous as their name, conservative-liberal, the current party of European Parliament favorite comedian, the Polish Nigel Farage, Janusz Korwin-Mikke after he got kicked out yet again)
- Razem (socially progressive, left-wing. Organizes protests for abortion rights and against Donald Trump)
- National Movement (
NazNationalist, conservative and populist, the heads behind Independence March - an annual road debricking, rainbow-burning celebration in Warsaw)
- Kukiz' Party (They don't really have name or a party platform, yet are somehow popular thanks to their vocal leader, musician Paweł Kukiz)
Republic of Ireland
- Fine Gael (center-right, governing party since 2011. PM Leo Varadkar’s party)
- Labour Party (center-left, practically in the pocket of FG. Second largest party between 2011-16; since then they’ve dwindled to almost nothing due to coalition with FG)
- Fianna Fáil (big tent party - currently the second largest party, although between 1932 to 2011 was always the largest party in the Dáil. Suffered a massive defeat in 2011, losing 57 seats due to massive economic mismanagement and corruption)
- Sinn Féin (centre left to left wing. Pretty long and chequered history. Formerly the political wing of the PIRA. Currently led by Ireland's most polarizing beard, Gerry Adams. Largest “left” party since 2016)
- Green Party (centrist, environmentalist)
- Socialist Party/Anti-Austerity Alliance (AAA) (far-left Trotskyists, expelled from the Labour Party in 1991.)
- Socialist Workers/People Before Profit Alliance (PPA) (far-left Hippie Trotskyists based in Kingstown)
- Independents (tend to have socialist leanings)
- Direct Democracy Ireland (right-wing, freeman on the land nutjobs.)
Note: almost every one of these lies as to its location on the political spectrum, and all these parties are loyal to Putin
- United Russia - Claims to be the centrist party with conservative views, actually populist and right-wing. Putin and Medvedev are members of this one. Actually Putin is the Chairman. Largest party.
- Communist Party of the Russian Federation - Yep. They are still around. It openly reveres Stalin. 2nd largest party.
- A Just Russia - Claims to be a social democratic party, which comes from the fact that the Socialist and Green Parties merged into it, but has in fact conservative and nationalist positions. Oftern proposes quite authoritarian laws. 3rd largest party.
- Liberal Democratic Party of Russia - Not really liberal or democratic, actually expressing right-wing nationalist positions on the majority of issues. Currently the smallest party in the federal parliament.
- Yabloko - The closest to a liberal party and the only major party that challenges Putin on his foreign policy. Has no seats in the federal parliament, but some regional parliaments have MPs from the party.
- Swedish Social Democratic Party (Centre-left, Social democratic)
- Moderate Party (Centre-right. Liberal conservatives. What a paradox.)
- Green Party (Centre-left. Environmentalist)
- Liberal People's Party (Centre to centre-right. Conservative in some issues for farmers and workers. but socially liberal centre-left party.)
- Center Party (A Centrist party with a semi-environmentalist agenda.)
- Sweden Democrats (Right-wing to far-right. Nationalist conservatives.)
- Pirate Party (Let's go torrent!)
- Christian Democrats (Centre-right. Socially conservative)
- Left Party (Left-wing. Like their name. They are feminists and activists. They advocate for socialism.)
As Swiss parties are in a perpetual coalition on the federal level political differences tend to mostly manifest themselves when it comes to referenda which are quite common in Switzerland.
- Swiss People's Party (Nationalist, Right-wing populism)
- Social Democratic Party (Center-left)
- Christian Democratic People's Party (Center-right)
- Free Democratic Party (Center-right. libertarian and Conservative liberal)
- The Greens (Center-left, environmentalist)
- Green Liberal Party (Centrist, environmentalist)
- Conservative Democratic Party (Centre-right, like British Tories)
- Labour Party (Center-left by Current criteria, Since Tony Blair, moderate social democratic, slightly centrist; seems to be back on track as a left-wing party under Jeremy Corbyn, unless they throw him out of course)
- Conservative Party (Center-right[note 4], Currently tearing itself up over Brexit. Three main factions are the Christian democrats, the liberal conservatives, and right-wing populists.) The UK Conservative Party (often going by its old political nickname of the Tory Party) would, in all irony, be defined as liberal by US conservatives. This is because in UK politics there is less of an extreme divide between the left and the right - it could be said that all parties are essentially battling for a middle ground, with only a slight hint of left/right political alignment, mostly inserted due to party tradition. While in the last decade the Tories have struggled with presenting a united front and have been through various leaders, it recently elected David Cameron as leader. In 2010 they formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats. As a sign of evil liberal infection within the party, it supports publicly funded healthcare (the NHS) and has many Muslim members - a Muslim stood for a seat in Parliament representing the Conservative Party in a recent election (he lost... for some reason). They also seem to be okay with abortion and civil partnerships for gay couples and aren't too hot on compulsory religious indoctrination either, and Cameron was able to pull off full gay marriage rights in England and Wales under the coalition, at the dismay of most of his party. However, their fiscal policies are still within the realms of conservatism. Much of the 2010 UK election was fought over what to do with the economy to pull it out of the recession; characteristically, the Conservative Party favoured immediate spending cuts to cut the country's budget deficit while the more left-wing Labour Party preferred to hold off any cuts until later and pay for it with a tax rise.
- Liberal Democrats (Center or liberal if you're a yank. Historically have been both market-friendly and supportive of more democratic systems of voting (so they can win more). Nick Clegg put them somewhere between Ed Miliband's Labour Party and David Cameron's Conservative Party, remaining supportive of austerity while largely forgetting what other ideas they used to have.)
- Scottish National Party (SNP for short, slightly centre-left and - until the election of Jeremy Corbyn - to the left of Labour, campaigns for independence for Scotland, and has no connection with the British National Party)
NaziNational Party (very similar to the American Nazi Party, except slightly more subtle about it)
- UK Independence Party (also known as Diet BNP - or BNP Lite if you don't get the reference first time)
- Green (Environmentalist, Left-wing, attempted to work with Labour to beat the Tories, but that failed because of the sheer hubris of the Labour Party)
- Official Monster Raving Loony Party (with the slogan "Vote for insanity, you know it makes sense!")
Ingsoc (Third Positionist) The brutally totalitarian party in control of Oceania, uses widespread propaganda, and manages to keep the masses ignorant and happy. Is represented by figurehead ruler "Big Brother", who likely doesn't actually exist. Propaganda is so thick that some information is unknown to the entire world. Came to power at some point between the end of World War II and 1984. In spite of nominally being socialist, the party has condemned all principles of socialism.
(major parties in bold)
- Liberal Party of Australia (center-right, conservative) Australian conservatives are, ironically, represented by the Liberal Party of Australia, so named because it was first formed on a platform of economic liberalism (although they are center-right by global standards). They stand for traditional values, and all the other stuff that US conservatives stand for (except gun control, and quite a lot of their members are pro-choice). They generally support some government intervention in the economy, particularly in health care and education, but aren't socialist by any means (they especially don't like the unions). The former leader of the Liberal Party, Tony Abbott, is a devout practicing Catholic and a cold opponent to abortion. For some reason, the Religious Right doesn't have much of a voice in Australian politics, but clearly it does exist. The fundies are represented by the Christian Democratic Party, the Family First Party (which has no representation on the federal level). Though, the current leader of the Liberal Party, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, is actually a borderline liberal (he is from the smaller, moderate faction of the party). The Liberals are in a perpetual "coalition" with the National party. Realigned themselves to the center (and even to the right) since Bob Hawke and Paul Keating in the 1980s, who balanced social spending for pensions, social wages, family benefits, retirement funds, education, and healthcare, with deregulation of the financial sector, dismantling of the tariff system, public sector privatization, and mandatory detention for asylum seekers. Add in a decade of conservative rule by John Howard, and you're right at where we are now, where every Labor leader (from Rudd to Gillard and Shorten) parades policies virtually indistinguishable from Tony Abbott and Malcolm Turnbull.)
- Australian Labor Party (Centre to centre-left. U.S. Democrat-style big tent party, but this is a bit more conservative than Democrats.), it has conservative wings
- The Greens (Left-wing, environmentalist)
- The Democrats (Liberal, centrist, sometimes center-left; de facto merged into the Greens)
- National Party of Australia (Conservative, Agrarian)
- Christian Democrat Party (The Fred Nile Group) (Christian, Conservative)
- One Nation (Far-right)
- Socialist Alliance (Far-left, Communist)
- Help End Marijuana Prohibition (HEMP) (Stoned)
- Labour (Center-left; social-democratic)
- National (Center-right; conservative)
- Greens (Left-wing)
- United Future (Centrist; socially liberal[note 5])
- ACT (Right to far-right; Classical liberalism, law-and-order conservatism)
- New Zealand First (Centrist;[note 6] populist with an anti-immigration emphasis)
- Maori Party (Indigenous rights)[note 7]
The New Zealand National Party won the 2008 elections and are traditionally considered to be a right leaning party, however their policies would be considered more liberal than Barack Obama's. While there is economic conservatism, social conservatism is almost unheard of, until the shit hits the fan.
- In Antarctica:
- The Snow and Ice Party (Supports incremental change at a glacial pace.)
- On the Moon:
- The Vacuum Party (Supports cleaning up all that dust, and pronto!)
- The Gravity Party (Supports long jumpers and golfers in attempts to beat Earth records.)
- The Secessionists (Supports leaving Earth orbit and applying for planethood status.)
- On Pluto
- The Planetist party (supports the demotion of Neil deGrasse Tyson and applying for planethood; wins almost all elections among ten year old earthlings)
- The Dwarf Planetist Party (repeated calls by little people to change the name have fallen on deaf ears)
- The U.S. Democrats are more conservative than Europe's mainstream center-left parties, but more liberal than mainstream center-left parties in Northeast Asia.
- Taiwan has a deformed political structure that is different from other countries because of various geographical, political and ideological realities. Rather, liberal or mainstream left-wing parties have a pro-American tendency (anti-(Chinese)imperialist and left-wing(taiwan) nationalism), and right-wing conservatives are not strong anti-communist because they are Chinese nationalism.
- Nowadays roughly five percent of Finland's population are native speakers of Swedish. Historically Swedish was the main language of the educated classes and as such some Finns resent the Swedish speaking minority for its former dominant role. The number of Swedish-speakers has been slowly declining since Finland gained independence and while both groups learn the language of the other in school most Finns are more comfortable speaking English
- But after Brexit, there's also a right-wing populist tendency.
- United Future is a one-man machine, led by Peter Dunne. It formerly had a strongly religious influence until the more extreme, Christian members departed in 2007
- New Zealand First is hard to place on the spectrum as they have policies that do not fit either tag very well. In the past they have formed governments with both Labour and National; strong anti-immigration, anti-foreign ownership and high superannuation are the cornerstones of its policy
- There was considerable debate when this party was formed as to whether it was racist to have a party that only represented one ethnic group, but given New Zealand's MMP system of government, coupled with the specifically Maori seats, this representation should end up being roughly proportional and they'll end up working with other parties that support whatever they want at that point in time, just like everyone else
- This fact is usually described as Duverger's Law.
- Rae, Douglas (1967): The Political Consequences of Electoral Law, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.
- Grofman, Bernard and Lijphart, Arend (eds.): Electoral Laws and their Political Consequences, New York: Agathon Press, 2003.
- Anderson, Lisa. The Politics of Prohibition: American governance and the Prohibition Party, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- See the Wikipedia article on Prohibition Party § Presidential campaigns.
- Finland's Social Democrats declare general election victory, Guardian, 14 April 2019])
- Finnish government avoids collapse as True Finns split, Financial Times, 13 June 2017.
- The right-wing Finns Party does well in Finland’s election, The Economist 17 April 2019
- Well, allegedly. Despite a 500% increase in NHS privatisation under their rule and a reclassification of what counts as healthcare – i.e. counting the bed that a patiant stays in after an operation as "hotel fees".
- Conservative Muslim forum UK
- But, under the Tory majority government, elected a "minister for equalities" who voted against same sex marriage rights.
- Blow for Cameron as 128 Tory MPs vote against gay marriage. New Statesman. Published 21 May 2013. (They really should have thought about renaming that article...)