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The Abrahamic religions are religions originating from the traditions of Iron Age proto-Judaism; the major ones are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, though there are others that are either offshoots of the main three (such as Bahá'í, Rastafari and debatably Mormonism), early branches that are not directly related to the modern forms of any of the main three (such as Mandaeism or, arguably, the faith of the Samaritans), as well as more syncretic faiths (e.g. the religion of the Druze). Judaism and Islam are unambiguously monotheistic though Christianity is sometimes seen as polytheistic due to the Trinity. All Abrahamic religions worship a single God, variously named El (ancient Semitic name), YHWH/Yahweh (Jewish tradition, sometimes used in Christianity), Jehovah (taboo deformation derived from early Christianity and rabbinical Judaism), Allah (Muslim, from the Arabic form of El), and numerous others. The term "Abrahamic" derives from the status of the Biblical patriarch Abraham as the mythical progenitor of all these related faiths. In modern times, Christianity and Islam are two of the largest and the two most widespread of the five major faiths of the world (the others being Hinduism, Buddhism and "Chinese Traditional").
The most fundamental document in the Abrahamic faiths is the Torah, the first five books of the Bible. Judaism adds the Tanakh (Old Testament); Christianity adds the New Testament (and, depending on the branch, some of the Apocrypha) to the the Jewish canon; Islam replaces the entire thing with the Qur'an, which has some connection to the Old and New Testament.
King David is considered to be one of the prophets by Muslims, which
Psalms the Zabur is revealed to him from Allah and would fit somewhere between Moses and Jesus. However, he does not carry the status of "Prophet" in Judaism or Christianity.
Some Christians, while denying that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormonism) is Christian, will nevertheless refer to them as the fourth Abrahamic religion. Unitarian Universalism, which has only existed in its present form since 1961 and is now overtly syncretic despite the Christian heritage of the denominations that formed it, might be considered a fifth - given viewpoints (mostly among Christians) may consider them part of, or wholly divorced from, Christianity, and individual members may or may not self-identify as Christian.
The following list is intended to be cladistic in nature, showing the relationship between religious denominations in terms of which tradition spawned which. Significant breaks (i.e. the point where a modified belief is said to be a new religion) are marked with boldface entries. By necessity, this list is highly simplified; see Talk:Abrahamic religion for further details.
- Proto-Hebrew religion (prehistorical to 1200s BCE) (may have been polytheistic, with YHWH and Asherah as heads of the pantheon; identified from the disappearance of pig bones in some Canaanite trash heaps)
- Ancient Israelite religion (1200s - 900s BCE)
- First and Second Temple Judaism (950 BCE - the destruction of the Temple in 78 CE.)
- Essenism (Jewish monasticism)
- Rabbinic Judaism (Destruction of the Temple and the priestly class in 78 CE to modern) (derived from the Pharisee tradition and developed through writing and study of the Talmud)
- Early Christianity
- Pauline Christianity
- Eastern Orthodoxy
- Oriental Orthodoxy
- Roman Catholicism
- Anglicanism (includes the Episcopal Church in America)
- Mormonism (status as a Christian faith is disputed due to the "vast" theological differences)
- Pauline Christianity
- http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html - "Nonreligious" comes in third, but is not an organized religion in any sense.
- See the Wikipedia article on Zabur.